梁子俊 百科知识 什么是宾语从句(英语语法零基础归纳法)

什么是宾语从句(英语语法零基础归纳法)

极简英语语法——宾语从句

宾语从句其实就是把一个从句(一个功能齐全的简单句或复合句)嵌入一个简单句里。例如:

I declare that my work is original.我宣布我的作品是原创的。

  • 主句: I declare that 我宣布了一件事。
  • 从句:My work is original 我的作品是原创的。
  • 从句修饰主句:我宣布我的作品是原创的。

例句就是把一个主系表结构的从句嵌入主谓宾结构的简单句里。

极简英语语法——宾语从句

可以充当宾语的从句类型

陈述句

一般疑问句(从句中必须是陈述句语序,非疑问句

  • I wonder whether/if Jim is at home.
  • I wonder whether tomorrow is a good time to visit her.

特殊疑问句从句中必须是陈述句语序,非疑问句

  • He didn’t tell me when we shall meet again.
  • She always thinks of how she improve her work.
  • She will give whoever needs help a warm support.
  • Can you tell me who the beauty is?

三种基本类型

 

 

动宾从句

有些动词可直接连接宾语从句,如 believe,admit,consider,dream,promise, declare 等, 基本所有及物动词都能这么用

  • I declare that my work is original.
  • I do not admit that I have cheated.
  • They informed me that I have been promoted.
  • I promise you that I will finish this work within a month.
  • I promise that I will never break my words.

用it做形式宾语, find, feel, consider, make, believe, think等后面有宾语补足语的时候

  • I think it necessary that we take measures to reduced green house emission.
  • I have make it clear that you are not welcomed here.
  • We take it that you will agree with us.

介宾从句

很多动词和介词搭配使用,如 depends on, surprised at

  • Whether you can succeed depends on how hard you try.
  • He was not conscious of what a big mistake he had made.
  • I am surprised at what you said.

介词宾语一般不跟that,只有在固定搭配时例外,如in that,except that, but that, save that等

  • He is different from others in that he is brave.
  • I know nothing about him except that he killed the dragon.
  • Your outlook is perfect except that your shoes are dirty.

形宾从句

形容词有动词的意思, sure, certain, glad, please, happy, sorry, afraid, satisfied, surprised

  • I am sorry I am late
  • I am not sure this is your true intention.
  • We are glad you are one of us now.

几种特殊规则

用whether或if引导的宾语从句

  • Whether this is true or not, I really don’t know.
  • Whether you like me or not, I really don’t care.

不能省略引导词that的状况

从句是直接宾语

  • She told me that the match has been concealed.
  • I can’t let him know that his mother is ill

多个that引导的从句,后面的that不可省略

  • Mama said (that) you are an angel and that she will not allow anyone to hurt you.
  • We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness. 我们认为这些真理是不言而喻的:人人生而平等,造物者赋予他们若干不可剥夺的权利,其中包括生命权、自由权和追求幸福的权利。——经典例句,来自独立宣言。

谓语和that之间有插入语

  • I noticed, for the first time, that she was not the girl I want.

it 做形式宾语时

  • I think it necessary that we hold a meeting to solve this problem.

That前置的强调句

  • That he is stupid is known to everyone.

否定转移

主句的谓语动词是think,believe,imagine,suppose,consider,expect,fancy,guess时,从句的否定词转到主句

  • I don’t think (that) you are right.
  • I don’t know (that) you are coming. otherwise I would have picked you up at this airport.

主从句时态关系

主句为一般现在时或一般将来时,从句时态不受主句影响

主句为过去时

  • 表示同时主从句动作同时发生:从句用一般过去时,过去进行时 She said she was playing video games.
  • 动作发生在主句动作之前:从句用过去完成时 He didn’t know what they had come here for.
  • 动作发生在主句动作之后:过去将来时 He told me he would spend his holidays with his girl friend.

如果从句是客观真理,它不受主句时态的影响

I knew that the earth goes around the sun.

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